Environmental concerns have been increasing over the past decade. The pandemic further exacerbated several pressures that society is facing as well. These issues have led people to explore ways to improve their health and reduce their environmental impacts while minimizing costs. These changing sentiments are leading to new opportunities in the fitness and sustainability industries. As the complexity of issues is increasing, combining best practices from multiple fields can be useful for developing more effective solutions to these challenges.
This report focuses on identifying market trends and new research that can generate opportunities for increasing revenue within the fitness industry. To take advantage of these opportunities, a set of recommended actions and their benefits are provided. These actions are then evaluated based on analogous efforts from other industries. Additionally, important elements that should be considered during implementation are highlighted to ensure effective results. Through the implementation of these suggested small efforts, professionals in the fitness industry have the potential to generate significant economic, environmental, and social impacts.
Increasing revenues within the fitness industry can be achieved through updating protein recommendation guidelines with the latest science and highlighting the social, economic, and environmental benefits of protein consumption changes through sustainability reporting efforts that provide additional client value.
Large scale challenges to society, like environmental degradation and pandemics, are creating disruptions to traditionally stable industries that are leading to lower revenues. To identify opportunities for increased revenues within the fitness industry, it is important to understand the latest market trends and scientific research. These trends provide insight into how consumer behavior can be shifted through identifying and satisfying specific needs and interests. Shifting consumer behaviors can lead to larger market shares and increased revenues for fitness trainers and online fitness influencers.
Identifying industry pain points and consumer interests can provide the necessary baseline needed to understand the challenges impacting the fitness industry. These efforts can provide insight into potential future market trends. Capitalizing on these trends is critical for success in a saturated market. Increased revenues can be achieved through an understanding of how financial capital is moving within the economy.
The pandemic has led to lower revenues for fitness trainers and online fitness influencers, however, there has been an increased focus on personal health. As seen in Figure 1, the United States fitness industry’s annual revenues dropped 58% from $35 billion in 2019 to $15 billion in 2020 and represent a critical issue for the fitness community (Rodriguez 2021). Over a third of fitness survey participants indicated that they would work out more after COVID-19 and that they have a renewed appreciation for their health and well-being (Myers 2020). These results have been corroborated by other research showing that 62% of respondents believe that being active is more important than before COVID-19 (Ding, et al. 2020). It will be important for the fitness industry to capitalize on these sentiments to recoup recent revenue reductions and to ensure that market share is not permanently lost to other industries.
Not only are consumers becoming more interested in fitness and health, but they are also increasingly focused on sustainable consumerism as well. A survey of consumers that purchase sustainable products and brands identified that nearly 30% of their purchases came from a desire to help the environment (Petro 2022). Additionally, the respondents indicated that reducing waste, reducing carbon footprints, and improving animal welfare were important to their product and brand choices (Petro 2022). Furthermore, over 58% of consumers from all age groups were willing to spend more for sustainable options, with nearly 90% of gen X consumers willing to spend 10% more for sustainable options (Petro 2022). This highlights how environmental impact reductions and sustainability reporting can be used in marketing efforts to drive increased investor and consumer interest. Efforts to highlight environmental aspects can act as a brand differentiator that can lead to increased revenues for fitness trainers and influencers.
Understanding that fitness and sustainable purchasing are important topics for consumers indicates a need for deeper understandings of consumer behavior. People are looking for easy to understand ways that they can change the environmental impacts of their behavior (Petro 2022). Additionally, they are looking for ways to improve their general health (Ding, et al. 2020). This indicates that there is a need for simple instructions that provide steps that can be taken by people to improve their health and environmental impacts. Clear and concise communication can satisfy these needs and can provide opportunities for increasing revenue by attracting new clientele.
Furthermore, there are a few primary goals that arise when investigating the motivators for health improvements. People primarily go to the gym to lose weight, gain muscle, or general health, which is often achieved through a combination of both actions. Fitness trainers and influencers understand these aspects well, however, the methods for ensuring clients are achieving results can be difficult to identify properly. Client satisfaction is a driver of client retention and revenues, so understanding the science-based methods for achieving these goals can lead to increased client results that ultimately lead to increased revenue opportunities for fitness trainers and influencers.
Recent Nutrition Research
Now that people’s needs have been identified, it is important to analyze the latest science to recognize opportunities for how those needs can best be satisfied. Detecting similarities in the efforts required to lose weight or gain muscle can lead to solutions that can apply to a broader audience. A literature review on these topics indicates that protein consumption stands out as an important driver in both goals. Understanding how protein consumption ties to environmental impact research can identify how behavior changes can reduce those impacts. Analyzing protein consumption and its environmental impacts can provide the necessary details required for implementing actions that can increase client satisfaction that ultimately leads to increased revenue for fitness trainers and influencers.
Since people are aiming to lose weight or gain muscle for their overall health, identifying actions that can be taken that support both goals can reduce the effort required to provide client solutions that fit those needs. In weight loss or weight maintenance, research shows that appetite control, increased satiety, and diet compliance can be achieved with dietary protein in the range of 0.54 grams to 0.73 grams of protein per pound of bodyweight per day (g/lb/d), or 1.2g to 1.6g of protein per kg of bodyweight per day (g/kg/d) (Dieter 2019; Leidy, et al. 2015; Roberts, et al. 2019). Similarly, recent meta-analyses indicate that protein amounts at comparable levels can lead to increased muscle growth and strength in resistance trained individuals (Morton, et al. 2018; Tagawa, et al. 2022). This indicates that protein consumption levels are an important driver of both weight loss and muscle gain. Focusing fitness recommendations on protein consumption quantities can provide fitness trainers and influencers the opportunity to improve clients’ results for multiple health goals.
Identifying how this research compares to current fitness training recommendations is important for finding opportunities for action. The recommended daily allowance of protein for the average person is listed at only 0.36g/lb/d (0.8g/kg/d) (Harvard Health 2022). However, current protein heuristics, or rules of thumb, in the fitness industry list 1g/lb/d (2.2g/kg/d) (Dieter 2019; NASM 2022). While this heuristic is based on research, more recent studies have indicated that the actual optimal value may lie somewhere between those two figures.
The primary scientific support for the 1g of protein per pound of bodyweight heuristic can be seen in Figure 2 that comes from Robert Morton and teams’ 2018 systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the effects of supplementing protein for resistance training athletes. In this meta-analysis they conclude that protein intake beyond 0.73g/lb/d (1.6g/kg/d) provides no further benefits to muscle mass or strength (Morton, et al. 2018, 9). However, in their analysis they state that because the 95% confidence interval of their analysis ranges up to 1g/lb/d (2.2g/kg/d) that it would be “prudent to recommend” consumption at the upper range to maximize results (Morton, et al. 2018, 8). This has led fitness trainers, influencers, and fitness certification organizations that train millions of fitness instructors to utilize this upper range figure in their training materials (NASM 2022).
Building on Morton and team’s foundational meta-analysis research, Ryoichi Tagawa and team performed a meta-analysis in 2022 that focused on randomized control trials of protein intake and strength training. As seen in Figure 3, they found that 0.68g/lb/d (1.5g/kg/d) was likely “the most appropriate amount of total protein intake for maintaining and augmenting muscle strength along with resistance training” and that no further gains are achieved in higher amounts (Tagawa, et al. 2022, 10). This further refinement in protein research indicates that the current fitness industry heuristics for protein consumption are too high. The current cautionary approach to protein guidelines places negligible potential fitness benefits above direct financial and environmental costs that stem from protein overconsumption. Consequently, combining fitness research with environmental impact research can provide additional insights into this issue.
Research regarding the environmental impacts of food choices has historically focused on protein sources (quality) instead of protein quantity. At around the same time that Morton and team released the first major meta-analysis on protein consumption for resistance training, Joseph Poore and Thomas Nemecek released their seminal 2018 report concerning ways to reduce food’s environmental impacts. In their study, Poore and Nemecek developed a database of environmental impacts for a large variety of food sources. Their analysis included greenhouse emissions, land use, water use, and water quality metrics for each food type as can be seen in Figure 4. This research has been referenced thousands of times in other research and articles. Additional metrics were developed from that data by different researchers looking to simplify it for everyday products that are made of multiple ingredients (Clark, et al. 2022). This has led to a large volume of data demonstrating the environmental impacts of food choices. The data has been primarily used to discuss the benefits of shifting to plant-based protein sources from animal-based sources. However, this data can be useful in calculating the environmental benefits of protein quantity reductions as well.
Historically, there has been very little crossover between the fitness industry and sustainability focused research. Nevertheless, there is a large opportunity to unify the research in both fields to develop a unique, simple, and effective solution. Protein and its environmental impacts create the nexus point that the fitness industry should be focused upon. People are looking for easy to understand ways to change their environmental impacts (Petro 2022). Additionally, they are looking for ways to vote with their dollars (Callen 2021a). Fitness trainers and influencers are well positioned to capitalize on these trends with minimal effort.
Fitness focused individuals get their nutrition information primarily from fitness trainers, influencers, or other gym goers instead of nutritionists. There are currently around 8,500 nutritionists in the United States (Zippia 2022). Conversely, there are over 373,000 fitness trainers and thousands of additional online fitness influencers on social media (Upfluence 2021; Williams 2021). Fitness trainers and influencers have an opportunity to increase revenues by using best-in-class protein research combined with sustainability metrics to provide clients with easy-to-understand ways they can make small behavior shifts that provide effective results. Through small training and marketing material updates, fitness trainers and influencers can increase their revenues while creating large beneficial impacts by shifting the behaviors of their clients and followers.
With fitness industry revenues in decline, capitalizing on opportunities identified in consumer needs and industry trends is important for fitness trainers to increase their revenues. Providing simple ways people can change their health and environmental impacts while spending less money provides additional value streams to clients. A focus on protein consumption and its environmental impact can satisfy those needs if marketed properly. Similarly, the efforts required to update nutrition guidelines and marketing materials are minimal, providing the opportunity for fitness trainers and influencers to achieve large benefits from negligible costs. Utilizing updated protein guidelines and tying those behavior changes to sustainability metrics can provide additional client value that can lead to increased revenue.
Actions to Implement
Increased revenue for fitness trainers and influencers can be achieved through a simple three step process. Revising protein heuristics, reporting the sustainability benefits of those reductions, and highlighting how small simple actions can create large societal changes are the critical elements for effectively capturing these market opportunities. These steps represent low-cost actions that can provide large individual and social benefits.
The first and most important step for fitness trainers and influencers is to update their protein consumption guidelines and heuristics with the latest research. The current protein recommendation for fitness-focused individuals of 1g/lb/d (2.2g/kg/d) is significantly higher than the latest meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that indicate no additional benefits for protein consumption above 0.68g/lb/d (1.5g/kg/d) (Tagawa, et al. 2022). This simple change can be made to training materials quickly and easily.
The second step involves reporting on the sustainability benefits that come from these reductions in protein consumption. The latest environmental research and data on the impacts of different protein sources can be used to calculate the impacts of these reductions (Clark, et al. 2022; Poore and Nemecek 2018). Updating marketing materials with these beneficial impacts requires only a small amount of effort and can be implemented by any fitness trainer or influencer. The example in Table 1 shows how easy it can be to highlight economic and environmental benefits using the latest research.
The final step in the process is to highlight the connection between how these simple changes can lead to large beneficial impacts for individuals and society. Optimal health results can be achieved through avoiding protein overconsumption which leads to less costs to clients and less environmental impacts. Providing clear and concise actions that clients can take, and the benefits that come from those actions, is critical to addressing their needs. By updating protein guidelines using the best available science, reporting on the sustainability benefits of those changes, and connecting how clients can take simple actions to realize those benefits can provide fitness trainers and influencers the opportunity to improve revenues.
Benefits of Action
These proposed solution steps provide different benefits that can drive increased revenues for the fitness industry. Updating protein guidelines can improve client results with minimal effort required from fitness trainers or influencers. These actions are simple and easy for clients to understand. Additionally, reducing protein overconsumption decreases clients’ food costs. This increases a client’s disposable income, which provides an opportunity to upsell additional products or services. Increasing a client’s satisfaction improves trust and brand reputation as well. In a saturated industry, market differentiators and increased credibility are important factors driving client retention and growth (3D for Science 2021).
Combining the protein guideline updates with sustainability reporting can increase client and social value. Highlighting the economic, environmental, and social benefits that come from small actions can provide additional value to clients. Providing clients multiple value streams can help drive additional client satisfaction (3D for Science 2021). The inclusion of sustainability reporting efforts can improve opportunities for investor funding as environmental, social, and governance (ESG) reporting is becoming an increasing focus for investors (Callen 2021b). Additionally, healthier people can better persist in a climate change future where more hazards and vulnerabilities are expected (World Health Organization 2021). By combining the fitness industry perspective with sustainable reporting, fitness trainers and influencers can capitalize on a growing new market trend while improving social, economic, and environmental factors.
Connecting a client’s small actions to society-scale impacts can provide additional value as well. Benefits can often seem small when viewed on an individual basis. Showcasing how one person’s actions can contribute to larger changes helps provide clients with a direct connection to their goals of improving the environment or economy. With over 55 million people going to the gym at least twice each week, if even a small fraction of that population followed these updated guidelines, the impacts could be significant (Andre 2021). For example, using the data from Table 1, if only 1,000 individuals weighing 175 pounds were to reduce their protein consumption from 1g/lb/d to 0.68g/lb/d (2.2g/kg/d to 1.5g/kg/d) using the recommended updated guidelines, they would collectively have saved over $1 million dollars and avoided 2 million kilograms of carbon dioxide in a single year. An example of marketing materials that utilize these concepts can be seen in Figure 5. Through the simple actions of updating nutrition guidelines, using sustainability metrics in marketing materials, and highlighting how small changes can create large impacts, fitness trainers and influencers can increase revenue while driving significant additional benefits to society and the environment.
When evaluating any solution, it is important to identify how similar efforts have achieved success and what lessons or challenges to be aware of. This report provides further support for the actions and benefits proposed by analyzing how similar efforts have achieved results in other industries. Fitness trainers and influencers may have their own specific set of constraints, or preference of implementation methods, that differ from the proposed solution presented in this report. To aid in the development of a customized solution, additional information is provided regarding the lessons and challenges that may arise during implementation. Aligning actions to best practices in multiple industries can provide effective results that lead to increased revenues.
Results from Analogous Efforts
Identifying and understanding how other industries have used similar elements to drive revenue growth can provide support for making the proposed changes. A lot of research has been done on marketing and a consistent trend shows that customers are willing to pay more if they are satisfied (Homburg, Koschate and Hoyer 2005). Increasing client satisfaction increases revenues and can be achieved by providing multiple value streams (3D for Science 2021). Incorporating ESG data is important for investors and clients. Investors are now shifting to becoming “impact investors” that are focused on supporting business and entrepreneurs that are working to provide solutions to social and environmental problems (Callen 2021b). In 2020, the meal replacement company Huel focused on satisfying customer needs for simplicity, convenience, and sustainability which led them to increase their revenues 50% from 2019 to 2020 while similar companies lost revenue (Troitino 2020). These insights provide direct support for opportunities to increase revenue and investor assistance. The implementation of the solutions presented in this report can capitalize on those opportunities by increasing client satisfaction and trust.
Additionally, with over 373,000 fitness trainers and thousands of additional fitness influencers on social media, the fitness industry is quite saturated (Upfluence 2021; Williams 2021). In a saturated market it is important to stand out with a unique offering. Market differentiators are one of the most important elements for an individual or organization to be prominent in the market (Bigeye Agency 2020). Leading with science-based standards and a sustainability focus can act as a market differentiator in the fitness industry. Standing out in the industry can aid in client growth and retention which ultimately leads to increased revenues (Bigeye Agency 2020).
Businesses are always looking for effective solutions that are cheap, quick, and easy to implement. If a project can be completed with minimal costs and large potential benefits, it typically receives strong support (Callen 2021a). The proposed solution has very low requirements for time and cost, so it represents an effective and simple solution that provides multiple benefits that easily outweigh the costs of implementation. Additionally, the proposed solution aligns with these best practices in project management, marketing, and business development.
Lessons and Challenges
Several elements should be considered while implementing the proposed solution. Information that is easily understood, directly satisfies client needs, and ties individual actions to large impacts is important for successful implementation. These lessons and challenges are not comprehensive but are meant to highlight critical elements that should be considered during implementation of the proposed solution.
Ensuring that information is presented in an easy-to-understand format is critical. While providing scientific ranges for protein consumption may be technically more accurate, supporting clients with easy to remember heuristics is more important for adherence and behavior change actions. For example, since the research indicates that 0.68g/lb/d (1.5g/kg/d) is the limit of benefits, for United States clients a simpler heuristic could be to recommend consumption of 2/3 of their bodyweight as grams in protein per day. A 150-pound person would need to consume 100 grams of protein per day for example. This helps keep recommendations simple and easy to remember for clients, leading to higher adherence and brand reputation. Customers are 115% more likely to recommend a brand that helped simplify their decision-making process for product or service selection (Ware 2022).
It is important to portray the benefits that clients will receive from taking the recommended action of reducing their protein consumption from the old recommendations to new guidelines. Tying those metrics to the specific needs of the client is critical. Some clients may not care about the environmental benefits of those changes but will likely be motivated by the financial savings that come from reduced consumption. Some clients may not care about either but showcasing best-in-class information still builds trust. Identifying specific target client needs can help provide insights into how to best market the benefits from these guideline changes.
Furthermore, presenting the benefits in a format that is digestible is critical. Graphics can often be an important method of conveying complex information in intuitive ways. Graphics can be helpful in improving comprehension and enhancing understanding (Harvard University n.d.). Additionally, converting data into relatable equivalencies can be helpful. For example, instead of presenting the amount of carbon dioxide that is avoided in kilograms of carbon dioxide, it may be more effective to report how many coal plants would be avoided, or how many cars would be removed from the road. Memorable graphics that include real world comparisons can be a useful tool for ensuring the benefits being provided are fully understood. Clients that understand the additional value of a product or service being offered are more likely to choose and recommend that brand, item, or service.
This report focuses on using the latest science and market trends to develop a comprehensive solution that is easy to implement and that will lead to increased revenue. However, science is ever evolving and there is a potential for protein research to change in the future. Some of the largest protein research meta-reviews were used to develop the recommended guideline updates in this report but there may be more nuanced aspects to these numbers that may shift a protein guideline figure slightly higher or lower. The focus for this report was to utilize figures that represented the largest portion of fitness focused individuals. Additionally, as energy and transportation systems are decarbonized, the environmental impacts from food choices may be reduced moving forward. Furthermore, protein costs are continually changing, so using cost figures specific to a target audience is recommended. While providing additional client value does not guarantee increased revenues, industry analyses do indicate that additional client value is an indicator for increased client satisfaction and revenue growth (3D for Science 2021). For these reasons, applied solutions should be minimal in effort to implement and tailored to the individual’s or business’ specific client base with the most up to date data available to ensure the benefits outweigh the costs and that clients are receiving added value.
Fitness trainers and influencers are in a unique position to drive economic and environmental change through small actions that can lead to personal and social benefits. Increasing revenues within the fitness industry can be achieved through updating protein recommendation guidelines with the latest science and highlighting the social, economic, and environmental benefits of protein consumption changes through sustainability reporting efforts that provide additional client value. By taking these simple actions, market opportunities can be taken advantage of to drive increased revenues through client retention and growth. This proposed solution has the potential to create large economic and environmental benefits and can be applied quickly and easily. Implementing protein consumption guideline changes and marketing materials should be a high priority for any fitness trainer or online fitness influencer looking to increase their revenues and market impact.
Author: Logan Callen
3D for Science. 2021. “5 Benefits of Long-term Relationships Between Clients and the Company.” June 11. Accessed October 2, 2022. https://3dforscience.com/benefits-long-term-relationships-between-clients-and-company/.
Almaraz, Maya, Caitlin D. Kuempel, Andrew M. Salter, and Benjamin S. Halpern. 2022. “The Impact of Excessive Protein Consumption on Human Wastewater Nitrogen Loading of US Waters.” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 20, no. 8: 452–458. https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.2531.
Andre, Louie. 2021. “87 Gym Membership Statistics You Must Learn: 2022 Cost, Demographics, and Market Share.” FinancesOnline. Accessed September 21, 2022. https://financesonline.com/gym-membership-statistics/.
Bigeye Agency. 2020. “Why Differentiation Is the Most Important Marketing Tactic.” Bigeye Agency. Accessed October 18, 2022. https://www.bigeyeagency.com/insights/why-differentiation-is-the-most-important-marketing-tactic/.
Callen, Logan. 2021a. “Top Sustainability Topics and Relevance.” RisklessReview. Accessed October 18, 2022. https://riskless.review/787/top-sustainability-topics-and-relevance/.
—. 2021b. “Sustainable Business Model Hurdles: Fighting Short-termism and Valuation Problems.” RisklessReview. Accessed October 20, 2022. https://riskless.review/464/sustainable-business-model-hurdles/.
Clark, Michael A., Nina G. G. Domingo, Kimberly Colgan, Sumil K. Thakrar, David Tilman, John Lynch, Inês L. Azevedo, and Jason D. Hill. 2020. “Global Food System Emissions Could Preclude Achieving the 1.5° and 2°C Climate Change Targets.” Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science) 370, no. 6517: 705-708. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aba7357.
Clark, Michael, Marco Springmann, Mike Rayner, Peter Scarborough, Jason Hill, David Tilman, Jennie I. Macdiarmid, Jessica Fanzo, Lauren Bandy, and Richard A. Harrington. 2022. “Estimating the Environmental Impacts of 57,000 Food Products.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences – PNAS 119, no. 33: 1–e2120584119. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2120584119.
Dieter, Brad. 2019. “Protein and Weight Loss: How Much Protein Do You Need to Eat Per Day?” National Academy of Sports Medicine. Accessed October 18, 2022. https://blog.nasm.org/nutrition/how-much-protein-should-you-eat-per-day-for-weight-loss.
Ding, Ding, Borja del Pozo Cruz, Mark A. Green, and Adrian E. Bauman. 2020. “Is The COVID-19 Lockdown Nudging People To Be More Active: A Big Data Analysis.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 54 (20): 1183-1184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102575.
Harvard Health. 2022. “How Much Protein Do You Need Every Day? .” Harvard. Accessed October 18, 2022. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/how-much-protein-do-you-need-every-day-201506188096.
Harvard University. n.d. “Use Images and Media to Enhance Understanding.” Harvard. Accessed October 20, 2022. https://accessibility.huit.harvard.edu/use-images-and-media-enhance-understanding.
Homburg, Christian, Nicole Koschate, and Wayne D. Hoyer. 2005. “Do Satisfied Customers Really Pay More? A Study of the Relationship Between Customer Satisfaction and Willingness to Pay.” Journal of Marketing 69 (2): 84-96. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.188.8.131.52760.
Laycock, Richard, and Catherine Choi. 2021. “Americans Spend $397 Million on Unused Gym Memberships Annually.” Finder. Accessed October 18, 2022. https://www.finder.com/unused-gym-memberships.
Leidy, Heather J., Peter M. Clifton, Arne Astrup, Thomas P. Wycherley, Margriet S. Westerterp-Plantenga, Natalie D. Luscombe-Marsh, Stephen C. Woods, and Richard D. Mattes. 2015. “Role of Protein in Weight Loss and Maintenance.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 101, no. 6: 1320S–1329S. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.084038.
Morton, Robert W., Kevin T. Murphy, Sean R. McKellar, Brad J Schoenfeld, Menno Henselmans, Eric Helms, Alan A. Aragon, et al. 2018. “A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression of the Effect of Protein Supplementation on Resistance Training-Induced Gains in Muscle Mass and Strength in Healthy Adults.” British Journal of Sports Medicine 52, no. 6: 376-384. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-097608.
Myers, Rich. 2020. “Consumer Fitness Survey Finds Post COVID-19, Billions in Spend Will Be Lost or Reallocated in Massive Industry Transformation.” BusinessWire. Accessed October 18, 2022. https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20200526005202/en/Consumer-Fitness-Survey-Finds-Post-COVID-19-Billions-in-Spend-Will-Be-Lost-or-Reallocated-in-Massive-Industry-Transformation.
NASM. 2022. “About NASM.” National Academy of Sports Medicine. Accessed September 17, 2022. https://www.nasm.org/about-nasm.
Petro, Greg. 2022. “Consumers Demand Sustainable Products And Shopping Formats.” Forbes. Accessed October 18, 2022. https://www.forbes.com/sites/gregpetro/2022/03/11/consumers-demand-sustainable-products-and-shopping-formats/?sh=38900be16a06.
Poore, Joseph, and Thomas Nemecek. 2018. “Reducing Food’s Environmental Impacts through Producers and Consumers.” Science (American Association for the Advancement of Science) 360, no. 6392: 987-992. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaq0216.
Roberts, Justin, Anastasia Zinchenko, Krishnaa T. Mahbubani, James Johnstone, Lee Smith, Viviane Merzbach, Miguel Blacutt, et al. 2019. “Satiating Effect of High Protein Diets on Resistance-Trained Individuals in Energy Deficit.” Nutrients 11, no.1: 56-. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11010056.
Rodriguez, Melissa. 2021. “U.S. Fitness Industry Revenue Dropped 58% in 2020.” International Health, Racquet & Sportsclub Association. Accessed October 18, 2022. https://www.ihrsa.org/improve-your-club/industry-news/u-s-fitness-industry-revenue-dropped-58-in-2020/.
Schoenfeld, Brad Jon, and Alan Albert Aragon. 2022. “How Much Protein Can the Body Use in a Single Meal for Muscle-Building? Implications for Daily Protein Distribution.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 15 (1): 10-16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12970-018-0215-1.
Siou, JP. 2020. “Protein Price List.” BTGFitness.com. January 27. Accessed October 4, 2022. https://www.btgfitness.com/blog/protein-price-guide-2020-01.
Tagawa, Ryoichi, Daiki Watanabe, Kyoko Ito, Takeru Otsuyama, Nakayama Kyosuke, Chiaki Sanbongi, and Motohiko Miyachi. 2022. “Synergistic Effect of Increased Total Protein Intake and Strength Training on Muscle Strength: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Sports Medicine – Open 8, no. 1: 110-122. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-022-00508-w.
Troitino, Christina. 2020. “Huel Shakes Up Meal Replacement Market With $100 Million Revenue Run-Rate Claim.” Forbes. Accessed November 12, 2022. https://www.forbes.com/sites/christinatroitino/2020/02/25/huel-shakes-up-meal-replacement-market-with-100-million-revenue-run-rate-claim/?sh=2b7e55c644d0.
Turabian, Kate L. 2018. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. 9th ed. Edited by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams and University of Chicago Press Editorial Staff. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN-13: 978-0226430577.
Upfluence. 2021. “Industry Report – Fitness & Nutrition.” Upfluence.com. Accessed October 18, 2022. https://www.upfluence.com/industry-reports/fitness-nutrition.
Vukovic, Diane. 2021. “Cost of Vegan Protein vs. Animal Protein.” PlenteousVeg.com. August 17. Accessed October 4, 2022. https://plenteousveg.com/cost-vegan-protein-vs-animal-protein/.
Ware, Stephen. 2022. “Simple Communication Persuades Simply.” Truscribe. Accessed October 22, 2022. https://truscribe.com/simple-communication-persuades-simply/.
Williams, Blue. 2021. “How Many Personal Trainers Are in the U.S.?” Examine.com. Accessed September 23, 2022. https://www.exercise.com/learn/how-many-personal-trainers-in-us/.
World Health Organization. 2021. “Climate Change and Health.” World Health Organization. Accessed October 18, 2022. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/climate-change-and-health.
Zippia. 2022. “Nutritionist Demographics and Statistics In The US.” Zippia.com. Accessed September 23, 2022. https://www.zippia.com/nutritionist-jobs/demographics/.